Diabetes and Drug Treatments Paper
Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment. Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatment
Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the ability of the human body to control the level of blood glucose leading to high level of blood sugars in case the condition is not managed, it might lead to damage of the internal body organs in the long run. Diabetes may be either Type I or Type two diabetes. All these types of diabetes have different modes of manifestation and effects on the human body. None the less, there is a need to subject a patient diagnosed with either type of diabetes to help manage the condition and avoid the possible adverse complications. Below is a distinction between type I and II diabetes and an overview of the complication connected TO diabetes type II. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Paper.
Type II Diabetes
Type I and II Diabetes are the major variants of the disease. Both are chronic and affect the body’s blood sugar or glucose regulation. Type I diabetes leads to the body’s incapacity to yield insulin. On the other hand, Type II diabetes results in the inability to respond to insulin. Diabetes manifests itself through frequent urination, frequent hunger, blurry vision, fatigue, thirst and inability for wounds to heal quickly (American Diabetes Association, 2014). Type I diabetes occurs when the s immune system no longer recognizes resident cells. As such, it attacks and destroys beta cells responsible for the production of insulin. This makes it impossible for insulin to be produced.
Type II diabetes results occurs after the patient develops resistance to insulin that is produced internally. This resistance can be attributed to inactivity or obesity. Type 1 diabetes include family history, age, geography, and genetics. It is unpreventable. The risk factors for type II diabetes are prediabetes, obesity, age, physical inactivity, or have previous case of gestational diabetes (Inzucchi et al., 2015).
Diabetes Type II Drug
Thiazolidinediones assist the body to use glucose. They are however not suitable for individuals with cardiac problems or premenopausal women. They also increase the chances of having a bone fracture. Some of the common adverse reactions of this drug include gaining weight, problems associated with retaining fluid, anemia, heart failure, and upper respiratory tract infection. The proper admission of this drug follows the stepwise oral introduction followed by insulin. They progressively reduce blood glucose concentration. It is useful for monotherapy, dual therapy that includes metformin and sulfonylurea, triple therapy and the combination with insulin. Regular routines of physical activity are also recommended (Soccio, Chen, & Lazar, 2014).
Shortened and Prolonged Impact of Type II Diabetes
The earlier effects associated with diabetes type-2 are lower level of blood glucose, higher level of blood glucose accompanied by ketones and a higher level of blood glucose less ketones. The low blood glucose is known as hypoglycemia which limits the number of blood glucose to less than 70. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Paper. This makes the person unable to eat or drink prompting the need to help form a family member to administer glucagon injection in the patient complications (American Diabetes Association, 2015). On the other hand, high blood glucose also known as hyperglycemia may cause damage to the nerves, blood vessels, the heart, the kidney, and the eyes due to the lack of ketones. For the high blood glucose that lack ketones, the patient would experience thirst, blurred vision, frequent urination, increased hunger, tiredness, and dizziness.
Long-term impacts of type-2 diabetes include damage to blood vessels and general macrovascular complications as well as microvascular complications (American Diabetes Association, 2015). The effect may extend to other vital organs and system such as the digestive system, the immune system, the sexual organs, the gums, and the teeth. While the macrovascular complication affects the veins, the microvascular complications affect the arteries leading to kidney failure.
American Diabetes Association. (2014). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 37(Supplement 1), S81-S90.
American Diabetes Association. (2015). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical diabetes: a publication of the American Diabetes Association, 33(2), 97.
Soccio, R. E., Chen, E. R., & Lazar, M. A. (2014). Thiazolidinediones and the promise of insulin sensitization in type 2 diabetes. Cell metabolism, 20(4), 573-591.
Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M., … & Matthews, D. R. (2015). Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centred approach. Update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetologia, 58(3), 429-442. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Paper.