Depressive Disorder Essay

Depressive Disorder Essay

The client is a 68-year-old female who presents herself at the clinic. Her major symptoms include; disturbed sleep pattern, difficulty concentration, anhedonia, low self-esteem, guilty, decreased appetite, and disordered thought process. After careful assessment of the symptoms, the client is diagnosed with a major depressive disorder. The likely appropriate medication for the client is fluoxetine (Prozac) because research indicates that it is one of the most effective antidepressants for patients aged 65 and above (Kashani et al., 2017). Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) and doctors prefer to prescribe them to patients with major depressive disorder since it is safe and has fewer side effects compared to other antidepressants. Depressive Disorder Essay


When administering fluoxetine to a client, the nurse should inform her about the expected side effects from the use of the medication such as headaches, dizziness, upset stomach, and vomiting. The patient should report back to the clinic if there worsening or new symptoms. Also, the patient needs to comply with the medication directions including dosage and taking the medication at the right time. After using fluoxetine for 2 months, it is expected that the symptoms will improve both in frequency and severity. As the body gets used to fluoxetine, some of the side effects will improve gradually. If the client does not respond to the medication prescribed, a combination of medication and psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). If the condition persists, brain stimulation therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be suggested. ECT and TMS are used if a patient is not responding to medication (Livingston et al., 2016). In ECT, an electrical current is used to impact the functioning of the brain and relieve depression while for TMS treatment coil is placed on the scalp to send magnetic pulses and stimulate nerves in the brain that controls mood and depression. Depressive Disorder Essay

What is a depressive disorder? “ A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts. It interferes with daily life, normal functioning, and causes pain for both the person with the disorder and those who care about him or her.” (Psychology Today) The term depression in psychology is more than just sadness. “People with depression may experience a lack of interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.” (American Psychological Association) Depression affects 20-25% of Americans ages 18+ in a given year. (CDC) Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide. (WHO) Depressive Disorder Essay
There are different types of Depressive disorders. Many of the different types of depressive disorders are Major Depression, Unipolar Depression, Persistent Depressive Disorder, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Psychotic Depression, Postpartum Depression, and Atypical Depression. But, the two main categories of depression are Major Depressive Disorder
and Dysthymia, which group together the less common types of disorders. Major depressive disorder is when you feel depressed for most days of the week. Dysthymic disorder, must have less severe symptoms lasting longer than two years that do not disable, but he/she may still function in daily life. Many people with dysthymia also experience major Depressive Disorder Essay

Depression is the common cold of mental disorders — most people will be affected by depression in their lives either directly or indirectly, through a friend or family member. Confusion about depression is commonplace, e.g., with regard to what depression exactly is and what makes it different from just feeling down.

There is also confusion surrounding the many types of depression that people experience — unipolar depression, biological depression, manic depression, seasonal affective disorder, dysthymia, etc. There have been so many terms used to describe this set of feelings we’ve all felt at one time or another in our lives, it may be difficult to understand the difference between just being blue and having clinical depression. Depressive Disorder Essay

Depression is characterized by a number of common symptoms. These include a persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood, and feelings of hopelessness or pessimism that lasts nearly every day, for weeks on end. A person who is depressed also often has feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and helplessness. They no longer take interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed; this may include things like going out with friends or even sex. Insomnia, early-morning awakening, and oversleeping are all common. Depressive Disorder Essay

These feelings aren’t just a passing mood that goes away in a few days on its own. Instead, they stay with a person for weeks on end (at least two weeks, in order it to be diagnosed). The symptoms of depression don’t just develop out of the blue, either. They usually come on a person over the course of several weeks, a little bit at a time. It can be insidious in the subtle way that depression starts to overtake a person’s life. Some people even suffer for months from mild symptoms before it becomes full-blown depression. Depressive Disorder Essay

Appetite and/or weight loss or overeating and weight gain may be symptoms of depression in some people. Many others experience decreased energy, fatigue, and a constant feeling of being “slowed down.” Thoughts of death or suicide are not uncommon in those suffering from severe depression. Restlessness and irritability among those who have depression is common. A person who is depressed also has difficulty concentrating, remembering, and trouble making decisions. And sometimes, persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to traditional treatments — such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain — may be signs of a depressive illness. Depressive Disorder Essay

Do I Have Just The Blues… Or Something More?
Feeling down or feeling like you’ve got the blues is pretty common in today’s fast-paced society. People are more stressed than ever, working longer hours than ever, for less pay than ever. It is therefore natural to not feel 100% some days. That’s completely normal.

Depression can be a gradual withdrawal from your active life.

What differentiates occasionally feeling down for a few days from depression is the severity of the symptoms listed above, and how long you’ve had the symptoms. Typically, for most depressive disorders, you need to have felt some of those symptoms for longer than two weeks. They also need to cause you a fair amount of distress in your life, and interfere with your ability to carry on your normal daily routine. Depressive Disorder Essay

Depression is a severe disorder, and one that can often go undetected in some people’s lives because it can creep up on you. Depression doesn’t need to strike all at once; it can be a gradual and nearly unnoticeable withdrawal from your active life and enjoyment of living. Or it can be caused by a clear event, such as the breakup of a long-term relationship, a divorce, family problems, etc. Finding and understanding the causes of depression isn’t nearly as important as getting appropriate and effective treatment for it. Depressive Disorder Essay

Grief after the death or loss of a loved one is common and not considered depression in the usual sense. Teenagers going through the usual mood swings common to that age usually don’t experience clinical depression either. Depression usually strikes adults, and twice as many women as men. It is theorized that men express their depressive feelings in more external ways that often don’t get diagnosed as depression. For example, men may spend more time or energy focused on an activity to the exclusion of all other activities, or may have difficulty controlling outbursts of rage or anger. These types of reactions can be symptoms of depression. Depressive Disorder Essay

Learn more: Symptoms of Depression

Getting Help for Depression
When left untreated, clinical depression can last for over a year, with 40 to 50 percent of individuals still having symptoms sufficient to meet the diagnosis after one year.

More than 85 to 90 percent of people with depression can be treated effectively. In most cases, an individual eventually will experience a complete remission of symptoms. However, approximately 25 percent to 33 percent of those untreated will continue to have some symptoms and associated difficulty with daily life that can linger for months or years. Depressive Disorder Essay

Even though most people can be helped by depression treatment, effective depression treatment can take months to get right. Different antidepressant medications may need to be tried and discarded until the one that works for a person is discovered. The dose may also need to be adjusted until just the right dose is found that alleviates depressive symptoms while not increasing unwanted side effects. Depressive Disorder Essay

Some people may have only a single episode of depression. However, more than 50 percent of those affected will experience another episode. This is called recurrent depression. Left untreated, this represents a chronic disease, with each episode increasing the risk for another bout of the disease. More than 70 percent of those who have two episodes can expect to have a third, while 90 percent of individuals experiencing three episodes will have a fourth episode. Depressive Disorder Essay

The most effective type of treatment for almost all types of depression typically consists of a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Either treatment on its own is about as half as effective than when the two treatments are combined. That means that if you’re only taking antidepressants, or are only in psychotherapy, it will generally take you twice as long to feel relief from your depressive symptoms. Depressive Disorder Essay

In the most severe and chronic cases of depression, treatment may also include electroconvulsive therapy or hospitalization. You should talk to your mental health professional about the pros and cons of these kinds of treatments, as they may carry longer-term side effects.

Everyone experiences sadness and unhappiness at some point in their lives. Clinical Depression, however, is more intense and of longer duration than typical sadness or grief, which interferes with a person’s ability to engage in daily activities. The symptoms of depression can include: loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, major changes in appetite (either significantly reduced or increased), sleep problems (sleeping too much or too little), fatigue, a feeling of worthlessness or hopelessness, problems with concentration and making decisions, and thoughts of suicide.
There are two main types of depression, major depression (or major depressive disorder) and dysthymic disorder. A person diagnosed with Major Depression has experienced the previously mentioned symptoms for longer than 2 weeks. These symptoms either can occur repeatedly (called episodic) or only once; but they are typically severe. A Dysthymia diagnosis means that depressive symptoms are less severe, and they have been present for at least 2 years on more days than not. Depressive Disorder Essay

Individuals with bipolar disorder also display symptoms of depression. Bipolar disorder is a severe illness in which moods swing between ‘up’ states and ‘down’ states. Bipolar ‘up’ states, called mania, are characterized by a euphoric (joyful, energetic) mood, hyper-activity, a positive, expansive outlook on life, grandiosity (a hyper-inflated sense of self-esteem), and a sense that anything is possible. A person in the ‘down’ state of bipolar disorder experiences one or more of the depressive symptoms mentioned previously.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Depression Depressive Disorder Essay

While the term “Depression” has only been around for a hundred years or so, historical evidence suggests that a sense of sadness or melancholy has long been a universal part of human experience. The science of treating depression has blossomed in the last 30-40 years, and anti-depressant medications are some of the most frequently prescribed drugs in America.

Research suggests that St. John’s Wort can be used as a stand-alone alternative treatment for depression. In parts of Europe, this herb is often the preferred remedy for treating depression. Preliminary research suggests that other therapies, such as exercise, 5-HTP, SAMe and Omega-3 oils may also be used as stand-alone treatments for depression. However, their benefits seem to depend on the severity of a person’s depression, as well as his or her individual reaction to such therapies. Additional research to further clarify the role of these CAM treatments for depression is necessary. Depressive Disorder Essay


As mentioned earlier, according to many CAM practitioners, a combination of therapies will likely produce better treatment benefits. This is especially true for the treatment of depression; becoming more engaged and active in your therapy leads to better results. For example, consulting with a health care professional, taking Omega-3 Fatty acids and a B-vitamin, and exercising might help you gain control over your depression more quickly than solely relying on one treatment approach. Of course, a qualified CAM practitioner is the best person to determine which combination of treatments would be most beneficial for you.The following chart summarizes the common natural treatments for depression and the degree of scientific study available today to support their use: Depressive Disorder Essay

Natural Therapies for Depression


These complimentary medicines have been well-studied for both effectiveness and safety issues and can be recommended on the basis of their scientific and traditional-use background.
· St John’s Wort Depressive Disorder Essay

· Exercise


These complimentary medicines have at least some clinical studies in humans to support their use along with a long history of traditional use. They can be recommended for use on the basis of their traditional use and their relative safety.
· Omega-3 Fatty Acids


· 5-HTP


These complimentary medicines lack the support of good clinical studies in humans, but have been used traditionally, or have some studies that suggest that they might be effective. They can be recommended for use with the caution that they are not well-supported by research.  Depressive Disorder Essay
· Acupuncture

· B-Vitamins

· Homeopathy

· Yoga


These are complimentary medicines that cannot be recommended for use because are harmful, not effective, or are too new to make a judgment about their safety or effectiveness. Depressive Disorder Essay