Communicable Diseases – Measles Paper

Communicable Diseases – Measles Paper

Please include in your presentation:

1 what it is/type of disease,

2 pathophysiology,

3 signs & symptoms (with time frame),

4 mode of transmission (primary AND secondary),

5  – Primary (disease preventions, education)

– Secondary (disease screen, disease testing, education)

– Tertiary prevention ( specific disease treatments, complications/prevention of complications, rehab)Communicable Diseases – Measles Paper

6  – 2 references.


1 COVID 19

2 Infectious Mononucleosis

3 Clostridium botulinum

4 Rocky MSF



 1 what it is/type of disease, 

Measles also called rubeola is a viral infection that is highly contagious. It occurs normally in childhood although now it can be almost preventable because of its vaccine which is available. Some of its risk factors include travelling internationally and having a deficiency in vitamin A.Communicable Diseases – Measles Paper

2 pathophysiology 

Measles is transmitted by air, through droplets by paramyxovirus and the goes into the respiratory system to infect it.  it is a systemic infection but the first site it infects is the respiratory

epithelium of the inside of the nose, also know as the nasopharynx. It takes about 2 to 3 days to invade the respiratory tract and to replicate in the respiratory epithelium and regional lymph nodes. Primary viremia occur with it infecting the reticuloendothelial system. After that the virus then replicates more in the regional and distal reticuloendothelial site causing a secondary viremia which happens 3-7 days after the initial infection. When the second one happens, it tends to lead to infection of not only the respiratory tract and to other organs. The virus starts to shed from the nasopharynx starting with the prodrome till 3-4 days after rash starts.


3 signs & symptoms (with time frame), 

Incubation: exposure to prodrome is 10-20 days

The prodrome stage last 2-4 days but can also range between 1-7 days, symptoms during that period include mild to moderate fever which can go as high as 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Then it is followed by the 3 C’s which are coryza, cough or conjunctivitis.

From exposure to onset of rash takes about 14 days but can range from 7-21 days

Before the rash occurs is another symptom which is kolpik spot. It normally happens 1-2 days before the rash to 1-2 days after rash.

Last symptom would be the rash which is red or reddish brown. It starts of the face and spreads downward. Normally there is a rise in fever with the rash and the rash lasts about 5-6 days. At the beginning the will blanch with pressure from the fingertips but after 3-4 days the begin not to blanch. The rash fades in the same order it appears.

4 mode of transmission (primary AND secondary),

Primary transmission is large respiratory droplets from person to person. (

Secondary transmission is airborne transmission through aerosolized droplet in closed areas and can last up to 2 hours after a person with measles has occupied the space. indirect contact such as infected nasal secretions on infected surfaces.

5  – Primary (disease preventions, education) 

Getting the MMR Vaccine, CDC recommends that children get 2 doses of the vaccine to be fully protected. The first dose can be given between the ages of 12 months to 15 months and the second dose can be given at 4 to 6 years of age and promoting hand hygiene.Communicable Diseases – Measles Paper

     – Secondary (disease screen, disease testing, education)

-secondary prevention would be getting a blood test, urine sample or throat swab to confirm if it is truly measles

– Tertiary prevention (specific disease treatments, complications/prevention of complications, rehab)

Complication that can occur from measles would be ear infections, pneumonia, encephalitis, laryngitis or even death so to prevent such complication from occurring would be to provide good nutrition, adequate fluid intake. Giving antibiotics to treat any infection. And giving 2 doses of vitamin A supplements given 24 hrs. apart.


 Measles Signs and Symptoms. (2020, November 5). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Measles. (2019, December 5). WHO. Communicable Diseases – Measles Paper