Clinical Manifestations Discussion

Clinical Manifestations Discussion

Mr. M’s clinical manifestations include several health conditions that deteriorate rapidly in the past two months. The patient is facing recalling challenges in different instances. For instance, forgetting his room number, repeating what he has just read, and trouble remembering his family members’ names. Additionally, Mr. M’s character has changed rapidly, making him more aggressive and agitated, which makes him afraid. Lately, the patient wanders late at night, making him get lost and need assistance to get back in the room. He is dependent and requires assistance with daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, feeding, and dressing.Clinical Manifestations Discussion

Based on the information presented in the case scenario, discuss what primary and secondary medical diagnoses should be considered for Mr. M. Explain why these should be regarded as and what data is provided for support.

According to the patient’s primary medical diagnosis condition, it is notable that Mr. M has Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s refers to a state that appears during the late stages, causing confusion and memory loss (Vossel, et al., 2017). However, these disorders make someone forget even familiar people, places, and the surrounding things. In the initial stages of the illness, a patient suffers from confusion and memory loss. As described, it is clear that the patient is suffering from memory loss by reading whatever he just read for the third time. Also, Mr. M gets afraid and fearful, making him agitated, showing he has Alzheimer’s disease. Consequently, Mr. M’s secondary diagnosis is urinary tract infection. This is supported by the presence of high levels of WBC, lymphocytes, and the positive urinalysis test with a moderate amount of leukocytes and cloudy appearance, suggesting the presence of bacteria in the urine (Jack, et al., 2019).


When performing your nursing assessment, discuss what abnormalities would you expect to find and why.

When conducting a nursing assessment, the likely abnormality expected would be tenderness or flank pain during deep abdominal palpation suggesting the infection has reached the upper levels of the urinary tract. Abnormalities in urine are also expected, particularly a cloudy appearance caused by the presence of leukocytes.

Describe the physical, psychological, and emotional effects Mr. M.’s current health status may have on him. Discuss the impact it can have on his family.

Mr. M’s condition imposes physical, psychological, and emotional effects as compared to his normal state. Physical effects set in as Alzheimer’s disease progresses towards the last stages (Alzheimer’s Association, 2019). However, the brain alternation affects the body systems’ normal physical functioning such as swallowing, bladder control, bowel, and balance. These physical effects may increase vulnerability imposing more health problems such as liquid into the lungs or inhaling food. Psychological effects related to this disorder are the Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as aggression, depression, and apathy are the main core features of (AD). Consequently, the emotional effects of this disorder majorly affect the family and friends who act as caregivers. Patients with this disorder have a hostile reception towards the caregivers since they have feelings of loneliness, depression, fear, anxiety, and anger. Clinical Manifestations Discussion

Discuss what interventions can be put into place to support Mr. M. and his family.

There are various interventions put in place, and when employed, they can support Mr. M and his family to manage his condition. These initiatives involve the use of non-drug interventions, including orientation exercises and memory, aromatherapy, art therapy, and music therapy. Community intervention will be a great source of support for the family as well as the patient. This is conducted by providing a social interaction towards the family members. Additionally, such initiatives will offer interaction, financial, and food provision that act as a source of support to family members. On the same point, community intervention may also initiate a visitation program to these families by helping them by creating awareness to patients and families affected by the disorder to seek medical attention in treating and managing the condition.

Given Mr. M.’s current condition, discuss at least four actual or potential problems he faces. Provide rationale for each.

Mr. M’s current condition exposes him to various problems that are linked with the disorder. For instance, the patient faces community stigmatization, a condition where negative labels are used against him due to illness. However, this problem accelerates due to a lack of public awareness and understanding matters concerning the disease. Thus, making the patient and family not to seek medical attention. Secondly, Communication problem is a vital issue to patients with the disorder since they have trouble remembering things. These problems make it difficult while interacting with such a patient since one may feel impatient and wish to put across the statement they intended to say, but it’s hard for them. Thirdly, memory loss, and cognitive thinking at the onset levels, Alzheimer’s disease naturally affects short-term memory. For instance, one may forget what you ate for breakfast or repeating one statement in conversation. Furthermore, as the disorder progress, patients gradually experience more long-term memory loss. Lastly, behavior and mood changes are an Alzheimer’s disease problem where the mood changes drastically, making it challenging to communicate. Clinical Manifestations Discussion


Alzheimer’s Association. (2019). 2019 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia15(3), 321-387.

Jack, C. R., Therneau, T. M., Weigand, S. D., Wiste, H. J., Knopman, D. S., Vemuri, P., … & Graff-Radford, J. (2019). Prevalence of biologically vs clinically defined Alzheimer spectrum entities using the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association research framework. JAMA neurology76(10), 1174-1183.

Vossel, K. A., Tartaglia, M. C., Nygaard, H. B., Zeman, A. Z., & Miller, B. L. (2017). Epileptic activity in Alzheimer’s disease: causes and clinical relevance. The Lancet Neurology16(4), 311-322.


Clinical Manifestations Discussion