Child Developmental Theories Essay.

Child Developmental Theories Essay.


Child developmental stages exhibit changes in the pattern of growth in children with the course of time until acquisition of adulthood. The process of child development encompasses stages of physical and cognitive enhancement.Child Developmental Theories Essay. Indeed, keen observation of developmental milestones in children is of paramount importance in evaluating and identifying patterns of their gross and fine motor developments, cognition, intellectual abilities and socioemotional conduct. Clinicians and psychotherapists developed numerous theories related to child development following their multiple observations and discoveries. Eminent child developmental theorists like Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, B.F.Skinner, Lev Vygotsky, Arnold Gesell, Alfred Bandura, John Bowlby, Sigmund Freud, Urie Bronfenbrenner and John Bowlby formulated theories on child developmental patterns following their scientific observations and subsequent findings.Child Developmental Theories Essay.


Erikson focuses on child’s psychosocial development while Piaget emphasizes more on the concept of cognitive development. Erikson’s theory of human development focuses on the psychosocial and environmental aspects of personality as the person progresses from birth to death (Kowalski and Rosdahl 2008, p. 96). Erikson considers child development as a variable process influenced by heredity, environment and culture (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 96).Child Developmental Theories Essay. Erikson believes that child development divided into multiple stages and each stage comprises of a critical period of psychosocial challenge pertaining to major life change. The children must successfully execute that challenge in efficiently acquiring the subsequent stage of their development (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 96). According to Erikson’s theory, caregiver in the family influences the ongoing developmental process by helping the child in accomplishing tasks related to psychosocial challenges during each developmental stage (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 96-97). However, the developing child must successfully resolve the psychosocial challenges by acquiring beneficial characteristics following the accomplishment of the developmental tasks (Kowalski and Rosdahl 2008, p. 96-97).Child Developmental Theories Essay.

Piaget explores levels of child’s cognitive development in context to attaining senses of perception, knowledge, understanding and thinking abilities (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 97). Piaget states, “Cognitive development is a continuous progression beginning with the reflexes of newborn, which are spontaneous and automatic (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 97)”. Child Developmental Theories Essay.Piaget’s theory argues with the cumulative process of development and underlines the basic fact that learning follows child’s previously acquired knowledge (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 97). Piaget’s levels of cognitive development include stages of Sensorimotor (up to age 2), Preoperational (age 2-7), and Concrete (age 7-11) and Formal operations (age 12 onward) (Kowalski & Rosdahl 2008, p. 97). Indeed both theories outline child development in terms of multiple stages, however; Erikson considers child’s psychosocial development as a variable process affected by circumstances, environmental factors and the care giving strategies. Contrarily, Piaget defines child’s cognitive developmental process as spontaneous and automatic, rather than circumstantial. Both theories agree with the basic fact that development is a well-sustained, age proportionate and gradual process processed from infancy until acquisition of adulthood.Child Developmental Theories Essay.

Toddlers/Preschoolers Developmental Behaviors

Brownell and Kopp (2007, p. 15) mention that, “Emotionally imbued social interaction is the fundamental context of development”. Recent research on brain development emphasizes the importance of the environment and relationships during the child’s first three years of life (Shore, cited in Herr & Swim 2002, p. xi).Child Developmental Theories Essay. Herr and Swim provide the specifications in terms of developmental milestones in accessing the language and communication developmental patterns of child (2002, p. 4). Sigmund Freud’s theory regarding child development and behaviour elaborates the proportionate affect of child’s sexual and aggressive urges and their appropriate management by parents in shaping child personality during the initial few years of development (Shaffer & Kipp 2010, p. 42). In fact, induction of patterns of behavioural modifications in toddlers results in their proportionate psychological development. Charlesworth describes the use of verbal and non-verbal actions in assisting the toddlers in attaining desirable behavior (2011, p. 288). Children’s developmental patters in the psychosocial context fluctuate with the care, feedback and affection offered by their guardians or caretakers. Freeman describes the psychosocial dilemma occurring when a gifted child either praised by his teacher for being top of the class, yet dismissed as a “know-all” during lesson time (1979, p. 25). The caregivers are therefore, required to acknowledge child’s innate talents or accomplish any gaps arising due to lack of desirable intellect. Teachers and parents require practicing positive reinforcement strategies to facilitate ascending developmental patterns in children, resulting in favourable outcomes.Child Developmental Theories Essay.

Parent-Child Relationship in Context to Parenting and Parenting Styles

Various scientific viewpoints enlighten the significance of practicing healthy parent-child relationship for effective upbringing of the little toddlers until their acquisition of adulthood. Aldort states, “Parenting is a path of maturation and growth if we dare to learn more and teach less” (2005, p. xvi).Child Developmental Theories Essay. The prevalence of racism and ethnic variations across the globe has become the root cause of exploitation of underprivileged sections of society. Children belonging to such groups face numerous challenges in acclimatizing themselves in the environment of racial discrimination. The concept of ethnic and racial socialization encourages parents in safeguarding their children and preparing them to cope with and respond against the racial and discriminatory actions of the society (Boykins et al, cited in Webb 2001). Inducing a healthy psychological developmental state in child is of paramount importance in progressing psychosocial homeostasis from the onset of infancy until acquisition of adulthood. Indeed, for healthy upbringing of child, the parents must themselves acquire and execute the state of psychological balance that will proportionately facilitate the emotional and psychological development of their growing child. Golombok believes that parent-child relationships do not prosper in a social vacuum, and parents in psychological conflict are less able to be effective mothers or fathers to their child (2000, p. 102).Child Developmental Theories Essay.

Health Promotion Strategy in Partnership with the Family to Enhance Optimal Health and Developmental Outcomes for the Toddler/Preschooler

After careful analysis of my findings in case study of Laura’s developmental patterns in the family context, I devised appropriate health promotion strategy in partnership with Suzanne to further enhance optimal health and developmental outcomes in the growing toddler. The findings in Part – A of the assignment indicate that Laura successfully displays developmental milestones in accordance with her present age group parameters.Child Developmental Theories Essay. Therefore, we formulated health promotion strategy to enhance her physical and mental development through play and play materials. Suzanne displayed a lot of interest in learning the play methodology and appeared eager to practice the technique with my assistance. Lowenstein et al believe that play progresses through stages that mirror children’s psychosocial development (2009, p. 182). Play materials including multicolored pictures, toys and objects induce visual stimulation, enhance learning process and grasping skills, thereby leading to progression and development of the developing toddlers (2009, p. 182). Sluss elaborates that playing offers toddlers a chance to move, stretch, throw, creep, crawl, climb, walk, run, grasp, toss and experiment with toys, thereby encouraging the development of gross and fine motor skills (2005, p. 87). Child Developmental Theories Essay.The play-based curriculum offers multifaceted benefits in enhancing the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical and language development of the growing toddler (Sluss 2005, p. 87).  Brownell and Kopp discuss regarding the benefits of play strategies, variations in play, and attention and emotional regulation in toddlerhood (2007, p. 404). Immediate benefits of play result in establishing social relationships with peers and practice with communication skills, social roles, and reciprocal turn taking (Bjorklund and Pelligini, cited in Brownell and Kopp 2007, p. 404). Delayed benefits include the accumulation of cognitive and language skills (Zukow, cited in Brownell & Kopp 2007, p. 404), opportunities to practice or prepare for adult roles and behaviors (Goncii et al, cited in Brownell & Kopp 2007, p. 404), and decreased likelihood of developmental delays later in childhood (Tamis-LaMonda et al, cited in Brownell & Kopp 2007, p. 404). The requirement of practicing play strategies to enhance toddlers’ development is indeed inevitable. In fact, various scientific findings validate the viewpoint that adopting play techniques prove highly effective to socialize and inculcate learning in the developing toddler.Child Developmental Theories Essay.