Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death Essay
Select one of the case studies below for your assignment. In your discussion, be sure to integrate your knowledge of advanced pathophysiology across the lifespan with the clinical implications for the advanced practice nurse Case Study Assignment Requirements: Make sure all of the topics in the case study have been addressed. Cite at least three references in your case study paper; this may include peer-reviewed journal articles, textbooks, or evidence-based practice websites to support the content. All reference sources must be within 5 years. Do not use sources such as Wikipedia or UpToDate as a reference. Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death Essay. Assignments must have at least four full pages of analytic content, double-spaced (the cover and reference pages do not count in the page count, but must be included with the assignment), and follow APA 7th edition format. Case Study 1: Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death Maria is a sedentary, 68-year-old woman who is overweight. She complains that her hands and feet are always cold, and she tires quickly when cleaning the house. At her most recent visit to her doctor, her blood pressure was 184/98 mm Hg. She has edema around her ankles and legs, and her physician is concerned about an echocardiogram that indicates Maria has an enlarged heart. Identify two reasons why Maria will have tissue ischemia. How might this lead to hypoxia? What are the two early and reversible changes that occur to tissue cells when they are hypoxic? What specific type of cellular adaptation has taken place in Maria’s enlarged heart? What made you come to this conclusion?
Identify two reasons why Maria will have tissue ischemia. How might this lead to hypoxia?
One cause of Maria’s tissue ischemia is that her heart is not effectively pumping to ensure enough blood supply systemically. The second reason is that the blood in Maria’s body is redistributing in her lower limbs, not recirculating back to her heart (Thorton et al., 2017). Circulatory dysfunction leads to hypoperfusion of tissues and organs, resulting in inadequate availability of nutrients and oxygen for cell activity (Kumar & Choi, 2015). Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death Essay.
What are the two early and reversible changes that occur to tissue cells when they are hypoxic?
If hypoxemia develops, aerobic metabolism will stop and anaerobic metabolism will take over, form, and release lactic acid. This results in elevated levels of serum lactate and metabolic acidosis (Zhao et al., 2017). The sympathetic mechanism compensatory mechanism causes an elevated heart rate, diaphoresis, peripheral vasoconstriction, and a small rise in blood pressure.
What specific type of cellular adaptation has taken place in Maria’s enlarged heart? What made you come to this conclusion?
The increased workload of Maria’s heart would cause hypertrophy. Hypertrophy is a pathological reaction that includes a change in the size of the cells resulting in an increase in the size of the heart (Vega et al., 2017). This form of stress adaptation happens in a variety of various cells and is typically associated with another type of cell adaptation, hyperplasia (Habecker et al., 2017). Hyperplasia is a cell reaction that requires a rise in the number of cells responding to a stimulus. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy also arise as a countervailing mechanism for increased strain on the organ or cell. Increase the workload feature … Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death Essay.
Habecker, B. A., Anderson, M. E., Birren, S. J., Fukuda, K., Herring, N., Hoover, D. B., … & Ripplinger, C. M. (2016). Molecular and cellular neurocardiology: development, and cellular and molecular adaptations to heart disease. The Journal of physiology, 594(14), 3853-3875.
Kumar, H., & Choi, D. K. (2015). Hypoxia inducible factor pathway and physiological adaptation: a cell survival pathway?. Mediators of inflammation, 2015.
Thornton, C., Leaw, B., Mallard, C., Nair, S., Jinnai, M., & Hagberg, H. (2017). Cell death in the developing brain after hypoxia-ischemia. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 11, 248.
Vega, R. B., Konhilas, J. P., Kelly, D. P., & Leinwand, L. A. (2017). Molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac adaptation to exercise. Cell metabolism, 25(5), 1012-1026.
Zhao, M., Zhu, P., Fujino, M., Zhuang, J., Guo, H., Sheikh, I., … & Li, X. K. (2016). Oxidative stress in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(12), 2078. Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death Essay.