Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.


In this assignment, students will pull together the change proposal   project components they have been working on throughout the course to   create a proposal inclusive of sections for each content focus area in   the course. At the conclusion of this project, the student will be   able to apply evidence-based research steps and processes required as   the foundation to address a clinically oriented problem or issue in   future practice.Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.


Students will develop a 1,250-1,500 word paper that includes the   following information as it applies to the problem, issue, suggestion,   initiative, or educational need profiled in the capstone change proposal:

  1. Background
  2. Problem statement
  3. Purpose of the     change proposal
  4. PICOT
  5. Literature search strategy   employed
  6. Evaluation of the literature
  7. Applicable     change or nursing theory utilized
  8. Proposed implementation     plan with outcome measures
  9. Identification of potential     barriers to plan implementation, and a discussion of how these could     be overcome
  10. Appendix section, if tables, graphs, surveys,     educational materials, etc. are created

Review the feedback from your instructor on the Topic 3 assignment,   PICOT Statement Paper, and Topic 6 assignment, Literature Review. Use   the feedback to make appropriate revisions to the portfolio components   before submitting.Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA   Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to   beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for   successful completion.Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer   to the directions in the Student Success Center.


Hand Hygiene (HH) is one of the most effective ways of reducing hospital transited infections (HTIs) in the healthcare setting. However, most healthcare professionals fail to comply with the international standard guidelines for hand hygiene negatively affecting the health and safety of patients. Poor HH of health workers has led to increased mortality rates among patients admitted in hospitals. More awareness needs to be created among the healthcare workers about the importance of HH to reduce the increased mortality rate. Healthcare agencies need to take the responsibility of ensuring their staffs are fully aware and adhere to World health Organization (WHO) guidelines for hand hygiene (Sadule-Rios &Aguilera, 2017). Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

PICOT Statement

For healthcare workers in Hospital does alcohol based solutions compared to hand washing protocol prevent hospital acquired infections during the period patients stay in healthcare facilities.Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Evidence based solution

Alcohol based solutions have been used widely across the world. Studies show that this approach to HH irritates hands less often, removes germs effectively and requires less time as compared to hand washing. Alcohol based solutions are also more accessible as compared to sinks. This approach to HH is more effective when the hands are not soiled. However, in situations where dirt can be seen on the hands, health workers should clean their hands using water. Alcohol based solutions have good microbial activity against various bacteria and viruses. Multiple studies show that alcohol based solutions are more effective in the healthcare setting as compared to hand washing protocol (Lehotsky et al., 2017). Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Nursing Intervention

Patients who have been admitted in the hospitals interact with nurses more often than any other healthcare professional. For this reason, nurses must take precautionary measure to ensure patient security and overall wellbeing. Nurse practitioners should use alcohol based solutions before and after interacting with patients. This will reduce the spread of infections in the healthcares setting. Nurses should also follow the WHO guidelines which require them to wear protective gear before interacting with patients. This will prevent them from acquiring infections from one patient and transmitting it to other patients within the hospital (Garus-Pakowska, Sobala&Szatko, 2013). Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Patient Care

One of the most important goals for healthcare facilities is to provide quality services to patients. Without proper HH this goal cannot be achieved. Hospitals should create proper HH guidelines to be followed by all patients admitted in their facility. Healthcare providers should also ensure that their patients are fully aware of these guidelines and ensure they are followed to the latter. Enough alcohol based solutions should be provided to ensure patients adhere to the guidelines (Deochand&Deochand, 2016). The healthcare workers should also ensure that visitors clean their hands before visiting the patients and after leaving wards. This ensures visitors do not bring infections to the patients. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Health care agency

One of the main responsibilities of the healthcare agency is to provide enough alcohol based solutions to both patients and healthcare professionals. Without enough resources they will be unable to follow the WHO HH guidelines. The healthcare agency should also ensure it has enough sinks with running water to ensure that patients and healthcare professionals can clean their hand when they have less supply of alcohol based solutions. They should also ensure they create awareness among their healthcare professionals about the importance of HH. Occasional audits should also be conducted to ensure nurses comply with the set HH guidelines (Chatfield et al., 2016). Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Nursing Practice

Most of the hospital acquired infections can be prevented by combining the alcohol based solutions and hand washing protocol. These techniques can complement one another increasing patient safety and care in hospitals. Nurses should comply with the WHO guidelines to reduce spread of infections in the healthcare setting (McLawsa et al., 2014). The implementation of standard HH guidelines will ensure a safe and secure healthcare environment. This will also improve patient outcomes and their overall well being. This can go a long way in reducing hospital stay as a result of hospital acquired infections. All hospital stakeholders need to take the necessary precautions to prevent the spread of these infections. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Literature Review

Professor’s Name

Student’s Name

Course Title



Most hospital acquired infections are as a result of human actions. Hand hygiene (HH) is a great way to prevent the spread of germs that cause these infections. However, studies show that nurse wash their hand less than they should contributing to the spread of these infections. This also puts patients at the risk of being infected during their stay in healthcare facilities. HH can prevent the spread of these infections and reduce hospital stay for patients. This paper aims to review various studies that are related to this topic and determine how they support the PICOT statement. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

PICOT Statement

For healthcare workers in Hospital does alcohol based solutions compared to hand washing protocol prevent hospital acquired infections during the period patients stay in healthcare facilities.

Comparison of research Questions

A study conducted in 2015 aimed to establish whether technology can be used to do away with health acquired infections in hospitals (Al Salman et al., 2015). Another study conducted in 2017 aimed to establish whether HH is enough for the prevention of cross-contamination on hospital wards (Hor et al., 2017). A thirds study done in 2016 focused on assessing the knowledge and attitude of nursing staff and residents towards hand hygiene in relation to reducing hospital-acquired infections (Maheshwari, 2014). The fourth study reviewed in this paper was conducted in 2015 and aimed to assess the attitude, knowledge to HH guidelines of nursing students and final year medical students towards hand hygiene in relation to reducing hospital-acquired infections (Ariyaratne et al., 2015).Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Another study conducted in 2019 aimed to explore the attitudes cleaning staff in hospitals as HH (Sendall, McCosker& Halton, 2019). In 2016, another research was conducted aiming to establish whether Hand-Hygiene Monitoring Systems are effective at reducing hospital acquired infections (Deochand&Deochand, 2016). Another study also conducted in the same year aimed to capture the experiences of HH among acute care nurses. This involved interviewing nurses to give their perceptions about HH (Chatfield et al., 2016). Finally, a study conducted in 2016 aimed to identify the knowledge of HH in the fight against HAI present in teaching hospitals affiliated to Zabol University (Sarani et al., 2016). All these research questions aimed to determine the effectiveness of HH in healthcare facilities. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Comparison of Sample Populations

The first study was carried out in carried out in Bahrain; a medical system in the nation was installed and observed for twenty-eight days. Over the twenty-eight days period, comments, suggestions, and remarks on the system were recorded and as a result improvements on the system were made on the course of the system trial. The second study was done in three hospitals in Australia. The specific areas of concern were the general surgical wards and the intensive care units. In order to examine if the infection prevention and control practices were influencing cross-contamination in hospitals, ethnography study was carried out (Hor et al.,  2017). The third study was done in Bhopal city and involved 160 respondents. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

The fourth research was done at a university in Sri Lanka. There were 289 participants, of which ninety-three were nursing students and one hundred and ninety-six were medical students. The fifth study involved the use of focus groups where 12 cleaning staff participated. The sixth study looked at several implemented HH monitoring systems. In the other research, eight nurses in the US performing various roles were interviewed. The final study was conducted on 170 nurses of two teaching hospitals in Zabol(Sarani et al., 2016). All these studies had enough sample sizes that helped to bring out reliable findings. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

Comparison of limitations

The methodology used in the first study was meant that the results could not be generalized for a wider population (Al Salman et al., 2015). The study is also time-consuming. In the second study, biasness on the part of the research could have significantly affected the findings of the study. The third study used a cross sectional approach and therefore could not be used to determine the behavior of healthcare professionals over a period of time. The fourth study used an approach that does not help to determine cause and effect of a phenomenon. The researchers experienced challenges in sampling the data that had been obtained compromising the reliability of the study. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.

The fifth study used explanatory design and therefore the interpretation of the information obtained was judgmental and biased.  The sixth study utilized observation as its method of study. This made it difficult for researchers to determine the behavior of interests of the participants. The next study was limited by the fact that participants could have provided biased information that could influence the final results. The approach also did not help to obtain all the information required from the respondents (Chatfield et al., 2016). The final study was limited by the fact that the problem of the study could not be tested statistically. Due to the observational nature of the study, the study is not repeatable. Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.


In conclusion, the studies that have been reviewed in this paper support the PICOT Statement. A threat to the credibility that might have been present to most of these studies was selection bias. The monitoring technology was not put all over the complex rather it was only installed in the coronary care unit. It was recommended that the systems should be tested in other sections of hospitals. HH training needs to be emphasized in order to bring improvement in healthcare system. Infection prevention management needs to come up with proper training programs for HH for hospital acquired infections to be done away with. There is a need for the study to be conducted in the real world for a valid conclusion on the subject matter to be done.Capstone Project Change Proposal Essay.