Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.

Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.


original question:MMR Vaccination and Autism In September, 1999 in The Lancet, Volume 354, issue 9182, pp. 949-950, A. J. Wakefield published an article titled \”MMR vaccination and autism.\” In this article he presented what he claimed was evidence of a link between the increased incidence of autism and MMR vaccinations. This article became the source of controversy for many years, and eventually The Lancet retracted the article in 2010.Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.


Original retracted Wakefield article 1998-1.pdfPreview the document Prior to this retraction the majority of the original listed authors asked for their names to be removed from the article. It had surfaced that at best the research was very sloppy or at worst was falsified. Answer the following questions in an academic, thoughtful manner being sure to cite your resources. Wikipedia may not be used as a citation but you may use the resources listed there as a starting point. Respond to two classmates for maximum credit. Critique the peer post in a thoughtful and academic fashion, citing your resources. Keep this discussion academic. Imagine you are practicing just after the initial article was published.Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay. What parts of the article would you question and why? Please compare the study to Nursing\’s Code of Ethics and assess for compliance as part of your response. How would you respond to parents who refuse vaccines because they are afraid their child may become autistic? PEER POST:When I read the retracted article, I immediately noticed the small sample size and lack of sample representation.Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay. With only 12 subjects that included 11 boys and one girl, any findings would be hard to generalize. Per White (2015), to generalize findings, the sample needs to represent the larger population. In addition, the study took into consideration reporting by parents that noted eight of the 12 children developed behavioral issues after receiving the measle, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (Wakefield et al., 1998). I am unsure of how the researchers obtained or what tool was used to gather this information from the parents. According to Gray (2017), the choice of tool can affect the significance of study results. Per the American Nurses Association (ANA) (2015), code of ethics includes but not limited to trust, benevolence, and commitment to health of patients and the community. It did not appear that the authors of the retracted article took into consideration of being in a position of trust, how their suggestion could negatively impact the health of the community and patients, and did not follow benevolence by doing good for society and research validity.Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay. How would I respond to parents who refuse to vaccine for fear of autism? I would provide information and education regarding the safety of immunizations along with immunization benefits. However, per the ANA’s (2015) code of ethics, one must respect patients’ decisions and choices even when one is not in agreement with those decisions or choices. In practice, one would have to accept a parent’s decision not to vaccinate their child. Provide a thoughtful, academic and cited response to the post of a student to achieve maximum credit. Non-cited or inappropriately cited answers or responses will not receive full credit.Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.

Biostatistics Research Nursing

Response: MMR Vaccination and Autism

The sample size used by Wakefield and colleagues was too small to produce conclusive and reliable results. The study was a case series, with authors conducting the study with only twelve who were referred for treatment to the hospital with regressive development disorder and chronic enterocolitis.  A too small sample size lessens the power of the research study and raises margin of error, which may render the study worthless.  According to Motulsky (2017),  when calculating the sample size, the researcher is required to select how much power the study will have.  For the study to have more power, the researcher needs a larger sample size. Power is usually set to a standard value of 80 percent. The value should be selected to match the setting of the experiment, the experiment’s goals, and the outcomes of making a type two error. Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.

Ethical issues form a significant part of contemporary research, related to the researcher and the study subject.  Human participants in research play a major role in acting as data sources. Researchers are obligated to safeguard the health, life, integrity, and dignity of research subjects. Researchers should adhere to the ethical principle of beneficence, which entails maximizing possible benefits while minimizing possible harms (Yip et al., 2016).  In Wakefield’s article, the researchers did not observe beneficence because they performed invasive procedures on the children which could have been harmful to their health.Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.

Concerns about vaccines’ safety are the major reason why parents refuse vaccinations for their children. They do not have information on the risks and benefits associated with vaccines. Nurses can play the role of providing unbiased, factual information about vaccines. Parents desire to be able to have in-depth information regarding the benefits and adverse effects connected with vaccines expressed factually (McKee & Bohannon, 2016).Biostatistics Research Nursing Essay.