Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care

Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care

Assignment 2
During Modules One and Two of this course you refreshed your understanding of the terms “philosophy” and “science”. This knowledge led to your reflection on your worldview or lens informing professional nursing practice, where you wrote a professional nursing practice philosophy. For Assignment Two you will study the work of one of nursing’s first theorists: Florence Nightingale, using a theory analysis framework.

To complete this assignment, study the work and contributions of Florence Nightingale. Florence Nightingale’s nursing work significantly influenced nursing knowledge, culture of professional nursing practice, role of women in society, and the call to caring for all humans in our communities.

Prepare a 4-5 page discourse that reflects thoughtful consideration and comprehensive study of her work and contributions to nursing and society. Present this discourse using a theory analysis framework to create a well-organized thoughtful paper. Use the theory analysis framework content from the course’s required textbook (Chapter 3). Other theory analysis frameworks may be used with faculty of record permission.

Incorporate use of scholarly references, historical artifacts, and nursing theory resources. References are correctly cited throughout the paper and included in the references section of the paper.

Conclude this assignment with a personal reflection on use of theory analysis criteria in studying nursing theory. Include your perceptions of the most important contributions of Florence Nightingale to professional nursing practice.

The following criteria are used to assign points to this assignment:

Discuss theory analysis criteria applied to the work of Florence Nightingale.
Incorporate topics from readings and exploration of course and other scholarly resources. Include introspective discussion and remarks that demonstrate your perspective on the work of Florence Nightingale. Include 4-5 contemporary, external scholarly sources.
The written work of Florence Nightingale applied to a theory analysis framework is presented in a well-organized thoughtful paper. Include external scholarly resources to support your position.
Paper is written in APA style without grammar, spelling and punctuation errors.
Length of paper should be 4-5 pages (body of text). Length of written discourse does not include the title page, figures, diagrams or reference pages.

Florence Nightingale is perhaps the most renown nurse of the 19th century.  Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care .While she made many contributions to the nursing profession, her environmental theory developed in the second half of the 19th century counts as one of her greatest contributions. The theory was developed in England and its seeks to explain the environment as a concept in health care. The theory interprets the environment as all the external influences and conditions that affect the development and life of an organization and have the capacity to prevent, contribute to and suppress disease and death (McDonald, 2017). The present paper presents an analysis of Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory based on Johnson and Webber’s theory analysis framework as presented in Johnson and Webber (2010, pp. 192-216). Based on the framework, the theory will be evaluated for significance, boundaries, language, concepts, propositions, variables, hypothesis and influence on nursing practice.


First criterion: Significance

A review of the theory’s significance reveals that it is clear and understandable. The theory explains the cause of illness/disease as an environmental imbalance. As such, it identifies critical factors in controlling disease as focusing on manipulating and sanitizing the environmental factors that include lighting, cleanliness, drainage, clean water, and clean air. Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care .These factors are manipulated to eliminate pathogens from the environment while creating conditions that allow the body to continue operating with minimal stress. In developing these critical factors, Nightingale borrowed ideas from her care of soldiers during the Crimean War when she noted that a good environment would allow the convalescing soldiers to recover faster and more completely (McDonald, 2017). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of five since the ideas presented in the theory are clear, easy to understand and have significance for nursing practice. In this respect, the theory makes it clear that the environment must be valued as an essential tool to the healing process as it supports nursing care efforts.

Second criterion: Boundaries

A review of the theory’s boundaries focuses on whether or not it is consistent with nursing practice. The model presented by Johnson and Webber (2010) reveals that the boundaries should look at the audience, case scenarios, role of nurses and responsibilities of other health care professions. The theory was presented for nurses in all settings, to include medical facilities and at home. It shows how nursing care can be supported so that it achieves the best outcomes. Still, it can be seen that it is more applicable in the home care setting where nursing personnel would be hard pressed to control the environment in which a patient recuperates. The ideas presented in the theory were revolutionary at the time it was first presented, sparking a revolution that later influenced the design of hospitals and all other environments where patients recuperate. At the core of the theory is the idea that caring is a minimum requirement for nursing practice and this should include presenting an environment that supports recovery. The theory has clear boundaries and limits on what nursing practice can do as well as how other health professions can offer their support (Butts & Rich, 2018). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of five for boundaries since it has clear boundaries and limits.  Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care .

Third criterion: Language

The theory presents Nightingale’s opinion based on her experiences. She accompanies the theory with true and experiences stories about her experiences as a nurse thus helping readers to understand what she intended to pass along. The use of understandable language can be verified throughout the theory, especially it its analysis of how nurses can and should support patients. The theory does not use professional slang or jargons (Butts & Rich, 2018). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of five since its language facilitates understanding about what the theory seeks to communicate.

Fourth criterion: Concepts

The theory presents and explains the concepts in detail, whether the common or more specific concepts. Nightingale addresses the concepts of environment, nursing, illness and health, all common concepts. The theory explains the concept of environment as any place in which a sick person or a patient is recuperating. It can be at home or a health facility. The environment has psychological, social and physical components that are interrelated and have an influence on care outcomes. In addition, the theory explains that health does not simply imply the absence of disease and includes the ability to use well all the powers that an individual has. Also, it explains that disease is a reaction that occurs in an effort to restore health. Besides that, it explains that nursing is a structured approach targeted at helping an individual to achieve a state of health with disease being eliminated or prevented from occurring. Based on the theory, other specific concepts include the temperature, air quality, sanitation, hygiene, water, noise levels, lighting and food/nutrition. It is important to note that although the concepts presented in the theory remain relevant, the theory was written in 1859 and there have been many changes that impact the concepts first defined in 1859. Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care .At the time, nurses worked under the exclusive direction of physicians/doctors, but that is no longer the case as nurses have become more independent in their practice. In addition, nursing was more of a science at the time, but is now considered a combination of science and art (DeNisco & Barker, 2016). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of two for the concepts as there is a need to revise the concepts to reflect the current realities.

Fifth criterion: Propositions

The theory presents the environment as a critical element that must be controlled in nursing practice. The ideas presented in the theory played an important part in preventing death and facilitating the recovery of wounded and sick soldiers during the Crimean War. Based on the theory, some propositions were made. Firstly, the proposition was made that controlling the environment is important for facilitating healing and achieving health. Secondly, adequate light and fresh air flow is important for recovery. Thirdly, clothing should help the patient maintain the right temperature. Thirdly, noise can be harmful for a patient. Fourthly, personal hygiene and nutrition is important for recovery. Finally, clear environments prevent disease infection and morbidity (Boykin & Schoenhofer, 2015). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of seven for its propositions. Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care .

Sixth criterion: Variables

The theory identifies variables that help in understanding the environment as a concept. The variables identified include nutrition/diet management, punctuality, cleanliness, quietness, temperature, light and fresh air. Based on the theory, failing to control any one of the mentioned variables could result in the environment going out of balance thus hindering the healing and recovery efforts. For instance, a patient who is not provided with the right nutrition could experience delayed healing. This means that the nurses’ actions can influence the variables and impact the care process. However, the theory also notes that it is not only nurses who are responsible for controlling these variables and some of them could be out of the nurses’ control, such as building architecture controlling fresh air flow (Smith, 2020). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of five as the variables help to understand the propositions.

Seventh criterion: Hypothesis

The utility of the theory to predict results shows a clear link between the environment and nursing care outcomes. Nightingale constructed the theory based on her practical experiences and observations, thus showing that the theory is backed by practical knowledge (Smith, 2020). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of five as it helps to explain and predict phenomenon in nursing practice.

Eighth criterion: Influence on nursing practice

The ideas presented in the theory and methods used helped to inform nursing practice. They form the basis of nursing curriculum today, with nursing practice still emphasizing that nurses should control the environment to facilitate recovery and healing. The theoretical representativeness of the theory is so relevant that it continues to act as a guideline for nurses today. Besides that, the methods used in developing the theory have been replicated by other nurses who continue to present new theory. Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care .Other nurses continue to rely on experience in practice to develop ideas that act as the basis for new nursing practice theories and models (Smith, 2020). Using the measurement scale provided by Johnson and Webber (2010), the theory would be assigned a value of five as its ideas and methods continue to inform nursing practice.



The present study critically analyses Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory. The analysis makes it clear the theoretical principles of the theory are well established and continue to serve as parameters for nursing practice today. It is clear that the theory has significance, clear boundaries, understandable language and concepts, which influence the formation of propositions that are understood in the variables and hypothesis. Overall, the theory has an influence on nursing practice.


Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. A. (2015). Nursing as Caring: A Model for Transforming Practice. CreateSpace Independent Publishing.

Butts, J., & Rich, K. (Eds.) (2018). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

DeNisco, S. M., & Barker, A. M. (Eds.) (2016). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Johnson, B. M., & Webber, P.B. (2010). An Introduction to Theory and Reasoning in Nursing (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McDonald, L. (2017). Florence Nightingale, Nursing, and Health Care Today. Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Smith, M. C. (2020). Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice (5th ed.). F. A. Davis Company.  Assignment 2 Nursing and Health Care.