Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.


create a 3-5page annotated bibliography and summary based on your research related to best practices addressing MEDICATION ERRORS. Please follow the scoring guide to write the paper. Please use the sources provided.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.




Medication error can be defined as the events that are associated with inappropriate use of medication. Although many of such events are preventable and may not show any bad signs, it may sometimes lead to an adverse effect of causing harm to the user. This can emanate from either the patient, the healthcare professional or just an innocent consumer. My interest on this topic has been drawn from the continued reporting of medication errors in many of our health institutions, despite the advancement in medical knowledge and application of technology in the medical processes. In my career, I have witnessed several medication errors with one leading to death of the involved patient due to erroneous prescriptions emanating from several professionals on duty in a critical care ward.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

Annotated Bibliography

The following studies have been chosen on merit regarding the medication error having attained the peer-reviewed status that qualifies them as credible research that can be relied upon for the evidencing of facts as presented by research. All articles were drawn from known scholarly journal databases with the assistance of key words such as medication errors, medication administration errors, as well as medical staff education.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

Allison, G. M., Weigel, B., & Holcroft, C. (2015). Does electronic medication reconciliation

at hospital discharge decrease prescription medication errors? International Journal of Health Care Quality 

This scholarly journal by Allison et al. (2015) focuses on the application of electronic medication system during discharge and its effects on the overall reduction of the medical errors. As such, the need for this research was necessitated by the fact that over 1.5 million people experience medical error situations each year in the US alone. The majority of these cases happen during the transition from the health facilities during discharge.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors. Therefore, there was need to apply technology and review its effect in reducing these errors. The research applied the electronic discharge medication reconciliation tool (EDMRT) at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, which resulted in a significant decrease in overall intravenous antibiotic errors at the time of hospital discharge (Allison et al., 2015). This article will be useful in shedding the light on the effective technology application in the overall reduction of errors.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

Siew, A., PhD. (2017). Reducing medication errors. Pharmaceutical Technology Europe,

29(11), 16.

This journal article by Siew (2017) focuses on the medical errors that occur during prescription or during the drug intake. It focuses on the role of healthcare professionals, as well as drug manufacturers in reducing medication errors. According to Siew (2017), communication errors are common, especially where multiple professionals are involved in the administration of drugs for the patient. The article further insists on the importance of manufacturers to differentiate drugs in terms of packaging components, especially between dosages that are of the same product (Siew, 2017). This article will be useful for the research in that it will provide a detailed overview of the responsibilities that are bestowed with different stakeholders when it comes to the drug manufacturing and administration. The article further reviews the error roots that are often blamed as being caused by patients and how they can generally be avoided to reduce the medication errors.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.




Van de Vreede, Melita, BPharm, GradDipHospPharm, M HSM, FSHP, McGrath, Anne,

BPharm,GradDipHospPharm, M.S.H.P., & de Clifford, Jan, BPharm, GradDipHospPharm, BHA, FSHP. (2019). Review of medication errors that are new or likely to occur more frequently with electronic medication management systems. 

Electronic medication management systems (eMMS) are widely used within the healthcare settings to assist in the management of the medication for the patients, the stock intake and the disbursement of the medications. Nevertheless, these systems are not always accurate and sometimes there are reported errors even in their presence. With this dilemma at hand, Van de Vreede et al. (2019) sort to conduct a research in several Victorian hospitals to establish the medication errors reportedly related to eMMS and those that were considered to occur often with the eMMS (Van de Vreede et al., 2019).Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors. The research established that human factors and unfamiliarity with the systems, were two contributing factors that led to medication error and not the system itself. Further, the system errors that emanated from the technical hitch were found to be less severe. This article will be useful in evidencing that human errors are the largest contributors of medication errors and if not well rectified, the presence of systems may proof useless.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

Yousef, N., & Yousef, F. (2017). Using total quality management approach to improve patient

safety by preventing medication error incidences. BMC Health Services Research, 17 doi:

Total quality management (TQM) approach is a common approach, especially in the manufacturing sector where every stage of the processes involved in a certain undertaking are counterchecked and hinderances are rectified in time to ensure the quality is up to the desired level. Yousef & Yousef (2017) in this research article present the effects of healthcare professional education and clearer handwritten prescriptions, as most medical errors emanate from the drug administration process. To improve the drug administration process and establish its effect, the study by Yousef & Yousef (2017) was conducted in one of the government owned hospitals and revealed that change of behavior among the professionals especially on handwriting reduced drastically the medication errors, more so those that emanated from drug administration errors due to poor handwriting. This research will assist in evidencing the effects of drug administration in the overall medication errors within the health institutions, as well as the importance of healthcare professional education and clearer handwritten prescriptions when it comes to drug administration to assist in reducing the overall medication errors.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

Lesson Summary

Medication errors are a serious aspect within the healthcare industry as their ratedetermines the patient safety and as well, dictates the success or failure of the patient care management. As such, from the focused studies and reviews, I have established that human factor is central in contributing and control of medical errors. Knowledge in medical administration, familiarity with the system, professional conduct during the administration of medication and application of technology through the establishment of systems have been cited as major factors from all the four studies in that they can assist much in reducing the medication errors within our healthcare settings.Annotated Bibliography – Medication Errors.

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