Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.


Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following: • Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun • Aspirin 81 mg daily • Metformin 1000 mg po bid • Glyburide 10 mg bid • Atenolol 100 mg po daily • Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain Nathan Write a 2-page paper that addresses the following:


• Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned. • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples. • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

Advanced pharmacology

Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes; Around three to four individuals who do have a stroke for the first time have elevated blood pressure.    An abnormal cardiac rhythm termed atrial fibrillation is found in around one in five strokes. Accounting for 31% of adults in America are impacted by hypertension quite often referred to as “high blood pressure” (Arcangelo et al., 2017).Elevated atrial fibrillation(AFib), blood pressure,  high cholesterol, diabetes, and breathing disorders are all common risk factors for stroke. They are all controllable.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

Health should be taken into account as physicians prescribe medicine for the elderly. (Scondotto et al. ,2018) research reveal that multiple homeostatic shifts exist in the human body, including a decrease of the homeostatic capacity as the personages. The increasing age influences the individual’s renal function. Decreasing of nephrons and hyalinization contribute to decreased blood supply through the body (Scondotto et al., 2018). Adverse drug reactions rise in pharmacodynamics and decline in pharmacokinetics especially in the elderly. Pharmacokinetic variations entail a drop in renal and hepatic clearance as well as a rise in the rate of delivery of lipid-soluble drugs thus prolonging elimination half-life, whereas pharmacodynamic adjustments entail altered, usually increase, susceptibility to a variety of types of medications such as anticoagulants,  psychotropic and cardiovascular medications.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

Drug impact on the patient’s body; Pharmacokinetics is the influence of the body on the medication, whereas Pharmacodynamics is the impact of the medication on the body . Managing atrial fibrillation (AF) includes three primary elements, including avoidance of TIA and stroke with anticoagulants, preservation, and maintenance of natural sinus rhythm, and regulation of ventricular velocity (Arcangelo et al., 2017). According to the Joint Committee, the main treatments for stroke must include Aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and lipid treatment, such as statins.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

Drug Therapy; HM is presently in Warfarin, which is intended to avoid further expansion of the current clot and inhibit the creation of new clots (Kizior et al, 2017). Motrin can be withdrawn and replaced with Tylenol for the patient. Tylenol 325mg 2 tabs PO every 6-8 hours PRN for the pain is a much more effective pain medication.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

An individual taking anticoagulant must not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin unless they are at risk of bleeding. To regulate hyperlipidemia, a statin drug should be used for lipid therapy. The introduction of simvastatin 10 mg PO to the medication regiment should lower risks for this patient due to hyperlipidemia. Since Glyburide has interacted with other medications listed above, such as Warfarin, Atenolol  Aspirin,  and Metformin, the individual should be recommended to do routine glucose tests. to avoid hypoglycemia.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.

The physician needs to recognize the age and comorbidity of the patient when administering medications to avoid adverse drug reactions. Proper follow-up treatment is critical for tracking side effects and medication doses, as well as guidance on lifestyle changes.Age and Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Processes.