A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.


Literature Review While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone project change proposal, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project. A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Question Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections:


Title page Introduction section A comparison of research questions A comparison of sample populations A comparison of the limitations of the study A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections



Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) are a significant problem in health care because they result in elevated morbidity, death, disability, and prolonged hospital stays that become an unsustainable economic burden. Staphylococcus aureus bacterium is one of the most prevalent pathogens in health care and the environment. It is the primary source of health-associated infections, varying from superficial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) to infectious diseases (Kourtis, Hatfield, et al . 2019).A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

Progress has been achieved in the prevention of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections in healthcare facilities, although further examination of the issue is required (Kourtis, Hatfield, et al . 2019). Lack of accurate and consistent global monitoring evidence suggests a significant global underestimation of the actual risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. Thus further studies and interventions are required to address this significant hurdle to improving health care conditions.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

This literature review evaluates and compares current clinical studies undertaken to analyze the epidemiological features of health-care-acquired infections and strategies to mitigate the infections. The primary sources of citations are the articulation of eight peer-reviewed publications written between 2014 and 2019.

A comparison of research questions

The eight articles have specific study objectives and goals and are generally categorized into three: concept of HAIs, distribution and effect statistics, and, finally, prevention and control approaches. In Heaven, (2016), Article ‘What are Nosocomial Infections? (2016) describes and distinguishes between nosocomial and other diseases and the safety consequences of HAIs. Compared to Hassan, Aftab et al. ( 2015), article “Nosocomial infections and their control strategies (2015)” addresses the pathogens that cause HAIs, of which bacteria trigger about eighty percent of all infections, while protozoans, viruses, fungi, and mycobacteria comprise the remaining cause of the diseases. Among the bacteria microbial Staphylococcus species, S. aureus is regarded as one of the most significant pathogens, liable for nosocomial infections (Hassan, Aftab, et al. 2015)A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

Identification and documentation of HAIs in healthcare institutions is essential because it guarantees the evaluation of infections, causes epidemic responses, offers information and guidance on mitigation of infections, and contributes to prevention studies. The facts sheets on National and State Health Care-Associated Infections Progress Report (2014) of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) act as a reference for data on US state and national advancement in the mitigation of HAI. It reviews the earlier study in depth.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

In Yatin, Abhinav et al. (2014) Article “Guidelines for prevention of hospital-acquired infections (2014)” a short-term strategy in which specific recommendations for preventive measures are addressed including the assessment of patients at risk of HAIs, the monitoring of hand hygiene, necessary procedures for minimizing spread and techniques to reduce HAIs. In addition to hand washing, Indah, Trevor, et al. ( 2015), in the article “Reducing hospital-acquired infections and improving the rational use of antibiotics in a developing country: an effectiveness study (2015)” promotes the use of high-quality antibiotics in the battle against HAIs.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.


Sample populations

Samples for HAIs are all developed for hospital settings, and the major variation is the research strategy; qualitative, quantitative, or even both. Indah, Trevor, et al. ( 2015) research was performed in a focus collection of patients required to stay in the pediatric or pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for longer than forty-eight hours. Likewise, in Michelle, Shailendra, et al., article “Evidence-Based Programs and Strategies for Reducing Healthcare-Associated Infections in Critical Access Hospitals (2015),” samples were obtained from patients whose terms had been extended. In Heaven (2016), articles samples were obtained from patients with a recurrence disorder contrary to one reported initially on their first visit.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

The WHO HAI Fact Sheet, “Healthcare-associated infections, FACT SHEET 2015” study data were derived from patient records in developed nations, and the sampled data forms the Information. In the CDC HAI Data and Statistics study, “Hospitals Acquired Infection Information and Statistics 2014”, collected information is extracted from randomly chosen hospital records.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

Limitations of the study

In Hassan, Aftab et al. ( 2015), the article demonstrates that it is impossible to use the findings of a single HAI trial in a healthcare setting and derive general conclusions from it. Infection levels vary in various clinical settings, and the diagnosis of such infections in specific hospital settings also differs considerably. Indah, Trevor, et al. ( 2015) article explains the difficulties in isolating the most critical components in HAI therapy owing to the nature of clinical experience, and perhaps a randomized controlled experiment is not practicable or ethical.

The WHO HAI Fact Sheet (2015 ) reports the restricted and often reduced output of low-and middle-income nations as a problem in the management and tracking of HAIs. General constraints include the lack of real statistics on the causative factors and predisposition of antimicrobials in developing nations. Pathogens such as MRSA are challenging to control because of their resistant nature, it is difficult to develop better plan and execution controls.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.


Research studies have shown that continuing, systematic collection, evaluation, and interpretation of health information is vital for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practices in the fight against HAIs. In developed nations, reviews such as CDC HAI Progress-Report (2014) serve as a basis for everyone seeking more information on improvements in the prevention of HAI.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.

More analysis will also be suggested to create a pool of information and data, especially in developed countries. The study of the infection rates of HAIs in various hospital settings is vital for the success of standard effective management applicable to the fight against all HAIs.A Literature Review of Hospital Acquired Infections.